1. Computing

HTML Codes for Mathematics

Special Characters Used for Math on Web Pages

Mathematics includes a lot of special characters that are difficult to type on most standard keyboards. There are the basic symbols like +, −, ×, and ÷. But there are also more interesting ones like: ∑, %, and even infinity ∞.

The following list includes the HTML codes for mathematics characters not in the standard character set. Not all browsers support all the codes, so be sure to test your HTML codes before you use them.

Some Mathematics characters are part of the Unicode character set, so you need to declare that in the head of your documents:

<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />

You should also get in the habit of declaring the same content type at the top of your CSS documents:

@charset "utf-8";
Display Friendly Code Numerical Code Hex Code Description
  &#8722; &#x2212; Minus Sign
+ + &#43; &#x2B; Plus Sign
± &plusmn; &#177; &#xB1; Plus or Minus Sign
× &times; &#215; &#xD7; Multiplication Sign
÷ &divide; &#247; &#xF7; Division Sign
% % &#37; &#x25; Percent Sign
  &#137; &#x2030; Per Mille Sign (per thousand)
= = &#61; &#x3D; Equal Sign
  &#8800; &#x2260; Not Equal To Sign
  &#8776; &#x2248; Approximately Equal Sign
  &#8801; &#x2261; Identical To Sign
< &lt; &#60; &#x3C; Less Than Sign
> &gt; &#62; &#x3E; Greater Than Sign
  &#8804; &#x2264; Less Than or Equal To Sign
  &#8805; &#x2265; Greater Than or Equal To Sign
  &#8734; &#x221E; Infinity Sign
  &#8539; &#x215B; One Eighth Fraction
¼ &frac14; &#188; &#xBC; One Quarter Fraction
  &#8540; &#x215C; Three Eighths Fraction
½ &frac12; &#189; &#xBD; One Half Fraction
  &#8541; &#x215D; Five Eighths Fraction
¾ &frac34; &#190; &#xBE; Three Quarters Fraction
  &#8542; &#x215E; Seven Eighths Fraction
  &#8747; &#x222B; Integral Sign
  &#8706; &#x2202; Partial Differential Sign
  &#8710; &#x2206; Increment Sign
  &#8719; &#x220F; N-ary Product Sign
  &#8721; &#x2211; N-ary Sum Sign
  &#8730; &#x221A; Square Root Sign
  &#8735; &#x221F; Right Angle Sign
  &#8745; &#x2229; Intersection Sign
  &#8729; &#x2219; Bullet Operator
ƒ   &#131; &#x83; Function Sign
  &#8260; &#x2044; Fraction Slash

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